Perhaps the best-known achievement of this Department was attained during World War II, with the establishment of purification protocols for, and therapeutic usage of penicillin. For this work, Profs. H. W. Florey and E. B. Chain were awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1949, along with Prof. A. Fleming from St. Mary's Hospital in London, who discovered the compound shortly after World War I. Subsequently, Prof. E. P. Abrahams and Dr. G. F. Newton identified and patented cephalosporin antibiotics, which are structurally related to penicillins.